Learning the Terminology

Cancer researchers and clinicians often speak a different language. Here are a few useful terms and definitions.

Angiogenesis
Blood vessel formation. Because tumors grow fast, they need to generate blood vessels to supply oxygen and nutrition and remove waste. See Avastin.

Antibodies
See Monoclonal Antibodies

Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs)
These drugs use antibodies to target cancer cells and precisely deliver an attached drug.

Anti-Folates
These drugs reduce cell proliferation by interfering with folate function. Folates, also called folic acid, are important nutrients that support red blood cell production and other functions. Anti-folate drugs include methotrexate, pyrimethamine and sulfamethoxazole. For schematic of how it works, please click here.

Ascites
Abdominal fluid buildup that can appear in late-stage ovarian cancer.

Avastin
An angiogenesis inhibitor, Avastin (bevacizumab) is a monoclonal antibody drug used to treat recurring ovarian epithelial, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer

Biomarkers
Molecules, such as DNA, RNA or proteins, that provide information about a tumor. For example, a mutated gene may indicate whether the tumor will respond to a specific treatment or be more aggressive.

BRCA1 & BRCA2
These genes work to suppress cell growth. They may be mutated in some breast and ovarian cancers, opening the door for rampant growth. BRCA mutations can also influence the efficacy of certain anti-cancer drugs.

Carboplatin
A chemotherapy drug that is often used to treat advanced ovarian cancer. For schematic of how it works, please click here.

Carcinosarcoma
A tumor that is both epithelial (tissue that lines internal organs) and connective tissue (bone, cartilage).

Cancer
Cancerous cells have uncontrolled growth, invade other tissues and spread throughout the body (metastasis).

Chemotherapy
Treatments designed to stop cancer by destroying cells or preventing them from dividing.

Clear Cell Carcinoma
A rare cancer, in which the insides of the cells look clear when viewed under a microscope.

Clinical Trials
These research studies test whether new medical interventions, such as anti-cancer drugs or combinations of therapies, are safe and effective.

CLIA
The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) govern laboratory testing on humans. Clearity uses CLIA-certified labs for our Tumor Blueprints.

DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid contains our genetic code and is mutated in cancer. See Genes.

Endometrioid
These tumors resemble the endometrium, which lines the uterus.

Enzymes
Proteins that catalyze a biochemical reaction, making them extremely important for most cellular functions.

Fallopian Tubes
The path eggs take from the ovaries to the uterus.

Fluoropyrimidines
These drugs work against chemicals called metabolites to restrict cell growth and division. Examples include capecitabine, floxuridine and fluorouracil (5-FU). For schematic of how it works, please click here.

Gemzar (Gemcitabine)
Like the fluoropyrimidines Gemzar is an anti-metabolite. For schematic of how it works, please click here.

Genes
DNA segments that contain the codes for specific proteins.

Hormone Therapy
These treatments usually block or eliminate hormones to control tumor growth.  Examples are anti-estrogens, like Tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, like Arimidex and Femara.  For schematic of how they work, please click here.

Immunotherapy
These treatments stimulate the immune system to fight cancer.

Investigational Therapy
An experimental drug that has not been approved by the Food & Drug Administration, often in clinical trials.

Metastasis
Tumor cells break away, travel through the blood stream and form other tumors throughout the body.

Molecular Diagnostics
Medical tests that look at DNA, RNA and/or proteins to learn more about a tumor and which drugs might be most effective against it. See Tumor Blueprint.

Monoclonal Antibodies
These proteins, which are produced in the laboratory, can be made to bind with cancer cells, making them useful for therapies.

Mutation
Genetic alterations. In some cases, these variations can lead to diseases, such as cancer.

Nucleoside Analog
These drugs inhibit cell division by blocking DNA synthesis. An example is Gemcitabine — click here for a schematic of how it works.

Neoadjuvant Therapy
Treatment to shrink a tumor; often used to make surgery more effective.

Objective Response Rate (ORR)
The proportion of patients in a clinical trial whose tumors shrink.

Ovarian Cancer
Cancer that forms in the ovary. Most ovarian cancers are ovarian epithelial, which begins in ovarian surface cells, or malignant germ cell tumors, which begin in egg cells. Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers are similar to ovarian epithelial.

Ovaries
The female glands that produce eggs.

Overall Survival (OS)
The length of time after a patient is diagnosed or has started treatment that they are still alive.

PARP Inhibitor
These drugs block PARP, an enzyme that repairs DNA damage. In some cases, blocking PARP can generate enough damage to kill cancer cells. PARP inhibitors include Lynparza, Rubraca and Zejula. For schematic of how it works, please click here.

Pathways
Groups of molecules, generally proteins, that work in concert to control cellular function. For example, a growth pathways modulates the cell’s ability to grow and divide and is often corrupted in cancer.

Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacodynamics describes how a drug affects the body, for example, its mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics describes how the body affects the drug, for example, how rapidly it metabolizes that molecule.

Placebo
Inert substance given to clinical trial participants. Researchers compare results from the placebo against the group that receives the active agent.

Platinum Therapies
These chemotherapy drugs damage DNA, leading to cell death. Platinum drugs include: carboplatin, cisplatin, oxaliplatin. Whether a patient is platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant can have a profound impact on their care plan. For schematic of how it works, please click here.

Progression Free Survival (PFS)
The length of time a patient lives with cancer without the disease getting worse

Proteins
These molecules perform much of the work in cells and form much of the tissue in the body. They are created from gene templates. Certain protein mutations can drive cancer or lead to treatment resistance. See enzymes.

Radiation
Directed x-ray radiation is used to treat a variety of cancers. Radiation damages DNA, killing tumor cells.

Randomized Clinical Trial
A clinical study in which patients are randomly assigned certain groups, such as a treatment group or a placebo (control) group.

Recurrent Cancer
Cancer that has come back after initially successful treatment.

Refractory Cancer
Cancer that does not respond to treatment.

Targeted Therapies
These drugs target specific mutations that may drive cancer.

Taxanes
These drugs block cell division to inhibit cancer growth and kill cancer cells. Examples include: paclitaxel (Taxol) and docetaxel. For schematic of how it works, please click here.

Topo I & II Inhibitors
These drugs inhibit DNA synthesis and RNA transcription by blocking topoisomerase I or II enzymes. Topo I Inhibitors include: topotecan, irinotecan, camptothecin. Topo II Inhibitors include doxorubicin, Etoposide, Epirubicin.

Tumor Blueprint
A sophisticated diagnostic test that examines the molecules in a tumor to determine what kinds of mutations it has and which treatments might be most effective.